Hydrology

 
 

PASSIVE HYDROLOGY

 

Goals

Understanding water distribution and local water

Housing unit design and layout that would work for a 2-3 people layout

defining what is acceptable for human needs

to design a toolkit, for more holistic water systems specifically on site

    resilience

    reeducating

    reclaiming

creating a building that is accepting change and a proponent for future endeavors

 

Understanding of immediate water:

“local” water:

water that is in immediate location. Local water can be various factors depending on the context. Portland, in this case has the ability and great strength to find water in close proximity, as it stands currently that water is in a aqueduct just outside of the city.

 

Our desire for local water found in research is considered immediate water, which in this case is water that fall directly onto the building platform via rain and is then filter and usable.

 

Living Building Challenge: Water

harvesting on site for the given needs while still respecting the natural hydrology 

water can be used, then purified and then used again

learning to challenge possibly outdated rules and codes to teach and educate that properly         regulated water on site is possible

All stormwater and water recharge must be treated on site

    stormwater can be released into neighboring sites with conditions

 

Rules of thumb

Typical family size: 3.2 people

per capita building use

Multi family- 40 gallons (per resident)

Water conserving toilets: 3 gal/flush

Low consumption toilets: 1.6 gal

Waterless toilets

 

Needs in a typical home:

Bathroom

    Shower

    Sink

    Toilet

Laundry

    Can be shared

Kitchen

    Sink

    Dishwasher

        Do you save more without a dishwasher or with one?

 

Water distribution

    Static pressure

    Upfeed distribution

    Downfeed distribution

    Tall building downfeed distribution

 

Amount that can be recycled

13.78 gallons a day:

Shower (7 minutes, 1.5 gpm): 10.5 gallons

Laundry: 1 gallon

Handwash dishes: .28 gallons

Other: 2 gallons

 

Assumptions that are being made

Residential 720sqft

Multi story

12 units per floor

1st floor is collection/harvesting

Water circuits, deploying space

20% circulation (12,500 workable space)

 

Versions:

V1 0% being recycled

V2 50% being recycled

V3 highest % being recycled

 

    Possibilities for recycle

        Toilets

        Shower

        Cooling

        Laundry

        Thermal Mass

Greywater to a level that is more that just toilets

 

Version from MEEB (redone)

 

15,625 * 43.5 (regular year) * .623 = 423,445 gallons can be harvested

5 stories residential/1st floor collection

12 units

 

60 units * 2.3 = 138 people

138 * 40gpd = 5,520 * 365 = 2,014,800 annual need for 40 gallons per day

 

Version backwards, as how much water can be used by collection only

*aka my own rules

 

5 stories (6 with first floor collection)

138 people * n * 365 days = 423,445 g/year

n = 423,445 g/year = 8.4 gal/ day

          50,370

 

4 stories (5 with first floor collection)

110 people * n * 365 = 423,445 g/year

n = 423,445 g/year = 10.5 gal/day

    40,150

Biggest water hoarders

Laundry and Showers

 

What can we recycle and use greywater for? That are very obvious

Showers

Washing Machine

 

So if we take out those two factors

and someones daily allowance is 8.4 gallons

We are accounting for what they could use is 7 a day and leaves some wiggle room

 

Is that possible?

 

Difference

1,160 possible capture

1,521 for 4 floors = 76% captured

1,900 for 5 floors = 61% captured

 

Therefore we need to recycle AT LEAST: 24-39% recycled for our water, THIS IS POSSIBLE

 

315,459 should try to be recycled in order to have a comfortable means for living

    ** very comfortable means of living

 

138 residents, with 5 floors of 12 units

 

Available vs. Singular

Available is the amount of water that can be recycled within normal jurisdiction, which is laundry and from hand washing, or diverting shower water to toilet use.

 

Singular water is water that can be recycled altogether which would include kitchen and shower water.

 

Avaliable per day to save: 2.28 gallons

Singular saving: 10.5 gallons

    Assumption: We can have a deep enough cleansing process that can recycle shower water, this is one of the more difficult challenges, seeing that normally this is not considered grey water

 

2.28 gallons per person per day— which is 16.78% of water recycled

If we recycle even 8 gallons of shower water— we will reach our goal

 

13.78 * 2.3 people = 32 gallons

32 * 12 units = 380 gallons per floor

380 * 4 floors = 1,521 gallons per day total NEEDED

380 * 5 floors = 1,900 gallons per day total NEEDED

 

Recycling capability

 

16.78%

2.28 gallons recycled per day per person

2.3 people/unit * 2.28 = 5.24 gallons per day

5.24 gpd * 12 units/floor = 62.92 gallons

 

62.92 gallons * 4 floors (v1) = 251.71 gallons

62.92 gallons * 5 floors (v2) = 314.6 gallons

 

This exercise gives a reference of if we recycle what is possible in jurisdiction (avaliable) we fall a little short. Hopefully this can begin to create a conversation of more aggressive recycling systems but also a way to provide municipal opportunities to recycle shower water for more efficient use and sustainable buildings.

 

74.6%

2.28 gallons + 8 gallons of shower water (per unit)

2.3 people/unit * 10.28 = 23.6 gallons per day

23.6 gpd * 12 units/floor = 283.73 gallons

 

283.73 gallons * 4 floors (v1) = 1,135 gallons

283.73 gallons * 5 floors (v2) = 1,419 gallons

 

If we capture rainwater, and store it, the amount being recycled is adequate for daily use and possibly giving back to the grid.

 

Catchment capability

making the assumption of just a one floor need

 

entire site size- 15,625 sq.ft

average annual rainfall- 43.5 in

dry season average (2/3)- 29 in

.623 conversation- as stated by Texas A&M site

 

15,625 * 29 in (dry year) * .623 = 253,093 gallons can be harvested

15,625 * 43.5 (regular year) * .623 = 423,445 gallons can be harvested

annual gallons needed- 503,700 (1st floor)

 

Dry season cistern size

 

1,380 gpd * 90 dry days = 124,200

 

124,200/7.48 in = 16,604^3 to gallons 124,206 gallon cistern

 

125,000 gallons cistern would be a typical size to meet gpd need

 

Challenging the sources

Philadelphia Government

    101.5 gallons per day

USGS

    80-100 gallons per day

    A toilet alone can use 27%

California Single Family Water Study

    173 gallons per household per day

Melbourne

    44-47% of people use grey water saving tools

    Allows others to get a license to that they can harvest storm water

    Since their drought people use 41 gallons per day, interesting

 

 

 

 

Large Questions

How do you empower residents to save water? without the monetary incentive? Advocacy for our hydrology. 

 

Home owners association for urban living buildings? Do we educate others on saving water to bring them to the advocacy for the public, do they get a certificate? “I lived in a passive hydro house for two years, and this is what I know”

 

If they pay for their water separately? and knowing that they will save? What if they don’t pay for it?

 

Would a dry sauna be worth it for the winter season? * connecting the fact that people shower longer

 

“If i had the money, I would pay to have longer showers” what if it was 300/month

 

Psychology of geography. Are they conscious on their own, or just by the need. Is it on the education system?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.yourhome.gov.au/water/wastewater-reuse

 

http://web.stanford.edu/group/narratives/classes/08-09/CEE215/Projects/greendorm/water/GraywaterCD/graywater08/Research%20Articles/ET04GryWtrQual.pdf

 

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B8XWHrjIaseLbDVXRU1WRDVwNTQ/viewhttp://extension.psu.edu/natural-resources/water/drinking-water/cisterns-and-springs/rainwater-cisterns-design-construction-and-water-treatment

 

http://rainwaterharvesting.tamu.edu/catchment-area/

 

MEEB

 

https://www.melbournewater.com.au/planning-and-building/pages/planning-and-building.aspx

 

http://water.usgs.gov/edu/qa-home-percapita.html

 

https://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us/conservation/thepowerof10/

 

http://www.phila.gov/water/educationoutreach/Documents/Homewateruse_IG5.pdf

 

http://ww2.kqed.org/lowdown/2014/01/23/how-much-water-do-californians-use-each-day-and-what-does-a-20-reduction-look-like/

ashley kopetzky